Lost Planetary Spacecraft


Introduction

Perhaps the most intriguing and interesting, but at the same time most rare objects to capture for a satellite photographer, are spacecraft intended for interplanetary missions. In this chapter, not meant are very long range images of probes on an interplanetary trajectory that are captured as star-like objects in front of starfields. In relation to this website we talk about high resolution telescopic imaging of planetary probes that were left in Earth orbit. In spaceflight history there were several spacecraft that not left the vicinity of Earth on the way to their original destination somewhere in the solar system. Mostly are launch failures involved in which the spacecraft did reach its parking orbit around the Earth but due to an engine failure didn't make it out of this orbit. Chances to photograph a planetary probe are very rare but not impossible.

Remains of Lost Venus Probe Photographed
After more then 40 Years in Earth Orbit

Around 2010, after several years of mainly ISS-telescopic photography, I was looking for other objects to photograph. Therefore I observed different satellites passing over the location and recorded their time and trajectory data across the sky. I noted one particular interesting object with a high angular velocity. After searching in CalSky, it turned out to be the object Cosmos 482, a failed planetary probe that made part out of the Venera family: In total 16 spacecraft that were launched by the Russians between 1961 and 1983 with destination the planet Venus. Venera spacecraft were launched in pairs with some 4 days space between them. Venera 8 lifted up on March 27, 1972 at 04:15:01 UTC while Cosmos 482 was launched on March 31, 1972 at 04:02:00 UTC. The spacecraft launched
on a Molniya-M launch vehicle (with Block-NVL upper stage) from the Tyuratam Missile and Space Complex (TTMTR). The Cosmos 482 spacecraft used the 3,6 meter high bus type 3MV that was composed of an orbital compartment (core with solar panels), planetary compartment (lander) and engine unit.

Cosmos 482 looked similar to Venera 8 and was intended to become Venera 9 but it never made it out of its parking orbit around the Earth. A similar failure occured 2 years earlier with the sistercraft of Venera 7, which became Cosmos 359. Just like Cosmos 482, this spacecraft remained in an elliptical Earth orbit but Cosmos 359 decayed after more then a year. A part of Cosmos 482 is still remaining in Earth orbit for more then 45 years now.

What exactly happened to Cosmos 482? Different sources mention a too short engine firing for the Block L stage burn needed to send the spacecraft on its way to Venus. Russianspaceweb mentions a burn of just 125 seconds instead of the required 243 seconds. NASA also mentions a burn of 125 seconds. As a result, the payload got stuck in an elliptical orbit around the Earth of (initially) 205 by 9.805 kilometers with 52 degrees inclination. Different sources report that after the failure, different objects were found in orbit of which some already reentered within 48 hours. A story of mysterious 'space balls' found in Ashburton, New Zealand is linked to decayed Cosmos 482 pieces. The balls - titanium spheres - were found just a few days after the launch of this intended Venera probe. After research, it turned out that the found objects were spherical gas tanks and that they indeed belong to Cosmos 482 or its rocket stage. The suspicion is that at the moment of the Trans-venus injection, an explosion of the escape stage had taken place.

  Venera 8 pre-launch images. Cosmos 482 would have looked similar. Compare the size of the probe to the size of a person. Photo right: Venera 8 after deployment of the Antenna

                


First Images of Cosmos 482 in Orbit

After the launch, five pieces of Cosmos 482 were found in Earth orbit, the spacecraft Cosmos 482 itself (1972-023A), the Molniya rocket 3rd stage or SL-6 Blok I (1972-023B)
the SL-6 PLATFORM (1972-023C), the Molniya rocket 4th stage or SL-6 Blok-NVL (1972-023D), and a debris item (1972-023E). Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics astronomer Jonathan McDowell comments on object C cataloged as PLATFORM: 'When the Soviets first started using the parking orbit technique in 1961, the US thought this object, the BOZ, was an orbiting platform from which the 4th stage was 'launched' - I guess it's not totally wrong to look at it that way'.

The
pieces B and C already reentered on respectively April 1 and April 2, 1972, shortly after launch. Fragment D (with RCS of 8,75) would have been the Block-NVL upper stage and reentered on February 20, 1983. Object A, which is believed to be the original Cosmos 482 (Venera) spacecraft bus, was in an original orbit of 205 x 9800 kilometers and decayed already on May 5, 1981. According to Russianspaceweb, the debris cataloged as object E separated from Cosmos 482 (object A) late June 1972 and this could explain why objects A and E had a similar initial elliptical orbit.

The debris item E is still in orbit and this is the object that I photographed in recent years with the telescope. This object is currently in an orbit of 203 x 2406 kilometers (the orbit lowered with 7394 kilometers since 1972) and would have - according to available data - a radar cross section (RCS) of only 0,72 square meters. The big difference in RCS compared to the in 1981 decayed piece - which would have been 12,6 square meters - suggest that the already decayed item was the actual spacecraft bus and that Cosmos 482E (object E), the only remaining item from the launch, is only a smaller element of the spacecraft. Also the full-illumination brightness at perigee of -0,1 mag for the decayed piece compared to 2,3 mag for the remaining piece, strengthen these suspicions. There are also visual observation reports from the 1970's that confirm that Cosmos 482A (object A) was a bright object in the night sky.

                                       Close-up of a Venera engine-unit (left) with spherical gas tanks. This part can be recognized in the overview photo right.
                                       Gas tanks of this type were found just shortly after the Cosmos 482 failure as 'space balls' in Ashburton, New Zealand


                                               
          


However, a
mateur observations over the last years have lead to some speculations about how much of the spacecraft is acually remaining and how accurate the precise RCS data about the remaining object actually is. It is also important to realize that interpretation of telescopic images can easily lead to wrong conclusions about the condition of the remaining object. One of those important details is that in the general procedure used for 3MV spacecraft, the solar panels were only deployed when the spacecraft was already on the way to its destination. This fact would indicate that at the moment of the explosion, the solar panels were still folded against the bus.

My own telescopic high resolution recordings suggest an elongated shape in most imaging sessions. However, this determination tells nothing directly about the true condition of Cosmos 482 after the explosion and how much of the spacecraft is actually remaining. The elliptical orbit of Cosmos 482, with a lowest point of just 203 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, makes this object an interesting target for high resolution imaging during a perigee pass. After having observed Cosmos 482 several times visually, I managed to obtain first telescopic images on August 1, 2011. These images are the first ever telescopic captures of this lost spacecraft.


First Results from 2011

First images of cosmos 482 were taken using a 10 inch aperture reflecting telescope with a color camcorder attached in secondary focus. Below are shown two frames of the August 1, 2011 imaging session that are color and contrast processed to bring out more detail. Interestingly, both frames show comparable structures. This is an indication that the detail is not intruduced by seeing distortions and could be real. Note especially the very bright blob, the long elongated structure with a dark interruption and the fainter blob on the lower side of the bright blob. Colors were strengthened to bring out more detail. The pass was not particular favorable and although in perigee, the spacecraft was not at its lowest possible point.


                              
First telescopic images of Cosmos 482 taken August 1, 2011 suggest an elongated structure with some interesting brightness variations



2014 Imaging Sessions of Cosmos 482

Although a success, I believed that with the 2011 imaging session results it was still too early to actually suggest anything about the actual condition of Cosmos 482 and, although the initial results were forwarded to some experts for further analyses, I decided to delay the official presentation of the imaging data until I had more data available. Three years later, in june 2014, I succeeded in capturing new images of Cosmos 482 during 2 reasonably steady nights, on june 25 and june 26. Meanwhile I switched to a monochromatic camera. Other results were also obtained in the same year with the old equipment and in less favorable conditions and in a situation of poor illumination. These results are not published because of the low quality.

Cosmos 482 on June 26, 2014

First shown are the results of the June 26, 2014 imaging session as the images were taken under relatively good seeing conditions and show some interesting structures. Although, the data was processed several times in the last years, the images below were processed in april 2018. Interestingly, again a bright element seems visible and some fainter parts. Most striking is the cross-like shape in which the elements seem oriented. The longer thin, fainter detail left, seems almost exactly perpendicular angled toward the thicker brighter element. The image at the right is a highly saturated processing and especially this processing indicates that there are some other elements, like the faint detail that gives the impression of another perpendicular oriented structure (on the right side of the bright element). However, as these structures are unconfirmed, these could be artefacts.


                Cosmos 482, photographed on June 26, 2014 from a range of
272,7 km while it passed 269,4 km above the ground. This corresponds to a 80,7 degree SSE pass



Raw Video Cosmos 482

Part of raw video of Cosmos 482, presented as gif animation of unprocessed raw frames obtained on june 26, 2014 from a range of 272,7 kilometers. Note the reasonable steady appearance of some visible structures which indicates that this detail is not changing with the seeing, indicating that these should not be seeing artefacts. Right: presented as negative.


                                                               

Cosmos 482 on June 25, 2014

Results from the Cosmos 482 imaging session on June 25, 2014 (below) show the object during a different pass and from another observing angle. Again the images strongly suggest an elongated appearance and this shape slowly changes during the pass. Also the orientation of the structure seems to change a bit. Since the start of the project in 2011 until now, there were a few useful opportunities. Sometimes, it took a lot of patience waiting for new observing opportunities. After the success of the 2014 imaging sessions, I still decided to wait with publishing my final report about Cosmos 482 because I was not sure about the interpretation of visible detail. Some new observing sessions provided additional data, other failed. It was in the course of 2018 that I decided to pick up the old data for new analyses.


                             
Cosmos 482 photographed on June 25, 2014 showing clearly an elongated shape with some subtle structure. Left: unprocessed, right: processed
                                               



Other frames from the Cosmos 482 session on June 25, 2014 from a range of 295,2 km while it passed 268,1 km above the ground. This corresponds to a 64,6 degree SSE pass


                        Negative processings of Cosmos 482 images taken on june 25, 2014. Note the clear elongated shape and similar length of the object in all frames




My preliminary conclusion of Cosmos 482 by February 2019: Observed using a 10 inch aperture telescope during varying passes, viewing angles, illumination angles and observing conditions, seems an elongated object with strong brightness variations. There is an indication of smaller structures but these are unconfirmed. Dispite the successful results, the mystery around the true condition of Cosmos 482 and what elements of the spacecraft exactly are still in orbit still remains unsolved.
A special thanks goes to Arnold Barmettler of CalSky for providing access to outdated data.


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Mars Probe Phobos-Grunt  stuck in Earth Orbit

At the end of 2011, there was a unique opportunity to capture images of another planetary probe that was stuck in Earth orbit. Phobos-Grunt was a Russian spacecraft launched on November 9, 2011 local time with the planet Mars and its moon Phobos as a destination. The mission to Phobos was an intended sample-return mission and there was a Chinese satellite on board - Yinghuo-1 - to orbit Mars. Due to an engine failure, the probe never left its parking orbit around the Earth. It remained for 2 months in an orbit of 207 x 342 kilometers, altitudes lower then the International Space Station.

On November 29, 2011, I first had a chance to observe the stranded Mars probe in the second day of the visible observing window over the Netherlands. A previous  attempt, a day earlier failed due to bright twilight and no visual orientation. Since I track objects manually with the telescope, I need to be able to track the object visually. On the  second day of the observing window, Phobos-Grunt was passing close to Altair, the  brightest star in the constellation Aquila. After a couple of clear sunny days, the edge of a front was approaching very fast from the West. I was afraid it would cover the sky just a few minutes before the greatly awaited pass of the probe. But it didn’t. Phobos-Grunt roared across the sky as bright as a star. It had an obvious reddish color visible in the tracking scope, or at least that was my impression in the few seconds of the pass, while I was concentrated at aligning the crosshairs of my viewfinder with  an object passing by with an angular velocity of 1.68 degrees per second. The probe passed by from West-Southwest, moving into Eastern direction with a 56 degrees elevation. To locate the spacecraft in what was still a considerably bright sky with the sun at -6 degrees elevation, I used a technique which recently enabled me to obtain images of the fallen satellite ROSAT, during a favorable pass in its last days before reentry. For ROSAT, the situation presented a comparable difficulty: bright twilight. The technique consists in picking up an object while it passes in front of a bright star. This time the great ‘helper’ was Altair. Many frames show a striking yellow color of the main body, which probably caused the impression of a the reddish color that was obvious visually.

                                                                 
Phobos-Grunt from an approach-angle, photographed in color on November 29, 2011



Phobos-Grunt, 2 Weeks before Reentry

Another opportunity to capture Phobos-Grunt was almost exactly one month later on December 28, 2011.
The spacecraft was going to make its last high pass over the Netherlands, and luckily enough, a clear sky was predicted, so I decided to stay up almost all night to be sure to not miss it and -in that case- to setup the equipment for high resolution imaging. I was curious about how its appearance would have be, given several reports of brightness variations, flashes, and flares over the last month. But the spacecraft showed up surpringly stable, or at least that was my impression during the few seconds of this fast pass 82 degrees high through the North, flying from West-Northwest into Eastern direction. Phobos-Grunt reentered the Earth atmosphere 2 months after launch, on January 15, 2012 over the Pacific Ocean, west of Chile.

                                              
                                 Phobos Grunt captured on December 28, 2011. Note the striking golden-yellow color of the foil in contrast to the color of the solar panels